Abba Kovner, [Abba Kovner]

Founder of Nakam, a Jewish terrorist group that intended to avenge Nazi Germans

Kovner was born March 14, 1918 in Ashmyany, who was part of the Russian Empire, now in Belarus. His father was a leather merchant named Mikhelevich Kovner, while his mother was Rochel Taubman.

In 1927, the family moved to Vilnius, the current capital of Lithuania, but at that time part of Poland, where Vilnius was only 50 kilometers from Ashmiani, with his father coming to open a shop.

At this Vilnius, Kofner attended a Jewish private school and studied Hebrew and arts subjects.

While studying, Kofner also became a member of the Hashomer Hatzair group (וויי

, “The Young Guard”), a popular socialist Jewish group. Kofner is a relative to Meir Vilner, the leader of Israel's Communist Party.

1939, enrolled at the University of Stefan Batory in the Faculty of Liberal Arts.

1941 June, the Germans invaded the Soviet Union, where Kofner was soon captured, and he was taken to Vilna Ghetto, a Jewish control zone established by the Germans in Vilnius.

During being grounded in Wilna Getto, Kofner joined Itzik Witenberg Joseph Glazman Alexander Bogen to establish the United Partisan Organization (FPO, Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye, אויייייייוויייIf you want to go to the end of the day, then you will be in the end of the day. FPO was the first Jewish underground armed group set up inside Getto to against Nazi Germans. Initially, Weitenburg was the leader of the FPO before Kofner took the lead in 1943. To wage war, guerrillas will trap the Germans and whoever they support.

In 1942, Kofner wrote a declaration of will, “Let us not go like lambs to the slaughter,” a statement that tried to convince Jews in the city to take up arms against Nazi Germans. He warned that Hitler had a plan to kill Jews in Europe.

July 1944, Vilna Getto was liberated by the Red Army of the Soviet Union.

After that, Kofner co-founded the Berihah movement (”), an underground advocacy group that helps evacuate surviving Jews to move to British Palestine, which later founded Israel.

In 1945, Kofner founded Nakam (') to avenge more than 6 million Jews who died in World War after he traveled to see the Majdanek extermination camp in Poland and also met the surviving Jews of Auschwitz in Romania. They have two plans: Plan A aims to kill many Germans by poisoning water supply systems, while Plan B is a plan to kill SS officers who are now being held by the Allied.

Nakam is able to collect large amounts of support from the Hashomer Hatzair (the Young Guard), a popular socialist Jewish nationalist group founded in 1913 in Austria-Hungary. It is also able to collect money from those who sympathize with the fate of the Jews.

While Nakam's members began to follow the plan, a handful of members were sent in line to work in a water supply plant, while Kofner himself traveled to Israel in order to buy the right toxin, which Kofner claimed he had spoken to by Cheim Weizmann, a Russian Jewish chemist who is president of the Zionist ( Zionist Oragnization), and later the first president of Israel, which, according to Kofner's hearsay, Weinmann supported Plan B, which Weinmann suggested Kofner to Ernst Bergmanm, a scientist whom Berigmann gave the task of finding toxic substances to Epharium Katzer (Ephraim Katzir, he was. The president. Israel later as well.)

Kofner was arrested while riding a British boat to return to Europe, where he destroyed the evidence toxin by throwing it into the sea, but Kofner was finally held for months in Cairo and Plan A was cancelled.

1946 April 13, members of Nakam lurched into the bread making factory, a factory that delivered bread to the Langvasser concentration camp. Langwasser internment camp near Nuremberg, they mixed arsenic into bread, which appeared to have 2,200 German prisoners who ate bread fell ill, but no one died in this incident.

Kofner, when out of prison in Egypt, returned to Israel, he married his wife, Vitka Kempner, and lived in the Aggregating Business District, Nahoresh (Kibbutz Ein HaHoresh), and joined the Haganah, an Israeli semi-armed force.

1948, when Israel declared the country, Kofner entered the Israeli army.

1970 won the “Israel Prize” in Literature.

1987 September 22, died at the age of 69 from cancer.