Zhou Enlai (, Zhou Enlai)
Zhou Henlai was born on March 5, 1898 in Huian, Jiangsu (Huai'an, Jiangsu). His father was Zhou Yineng (Zhou Yineng), while the mother was Soak Wan (Wan).
The ancestors were originally in Chaoxing City, Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province. Before his grandfather's generation, Zhou Panlong and Pu's brother, Zhou Jun'ang, moved to Huian.
Zhou Yi Ning is the second child of Zhou Phan Long.
When Zhou Hen Lai was born in a poor state because of the Great Depression in China in the late 19th century, his father had to go out and find work in the provinces, and he rarely had the money back to his home.
Shortly after Zhou Yigan was raised by his uncle, Zhou Yigan, who was unhealthy and was ill with tuberculosis. Shortly after taking Zhou Yigan to care, he died. Later, Madame Shen was a knowledgeable woman who taught books, reading, writing and introducing literature to Zhou Henlai, which Zhou Henlai claimed he liked reading Journey To The West of Wu Chengen (, Wu Cheng'en), a poet during the Ming dynasty since the age of 6.
1907, the biological mother of Zhou Hen Lu died.
In 1908, his adoptive mother Madame Shen died. After the death of her adoptive mother, Zhou Hennai, with his two younger brothers, traveled to Huian and lived with Ah (Yikui), while around this time his father was still working in Hubei.
In 1910, Zhou Henlai's uncle, named Yigeng, was adopted by Zhou Enlai, so Zhouen Lai set off to live in Shenyang, Manchuria, which was his home, Uncle Yigeng worked as a public servant.
Once at Shenyang, Zhou Enlai attended Dongguan Model Academy, a school whose modern curriculum offers teaching both science and English subjects.
In 1913, Uncle Yi Geng was moved to Tianjin, where Zhou Yu had to move along with him. Here he attended Nankai Middle School, a famous school founded by Yan Xiu (, Yan Xiu) and Jang Poling (, Chang Po-ling) as the president. One of China's most famous, and at that time, its education system was imitated by the Philips Academy in the U.S., where Zhou Yen's brilliance was so liked by Yan Siu that he offered to marry his daughter, but Zhou Yun refused the offer.
June 1917, Zhou Yen flowed graduation with honors
After that, he went to study in Japan, according to many of his friends of the generation. He attended East Asian Higher Preparatiory School, a language school for students from China, but he tried to take the entrance exam to Japanese universities twice but was unsuccessful.
After that, he became more interested in communist ideas, reading Chen Tuxiu's New Youth magazine (, Chen Duxiu).
May, (May Fourth Movement) caused a major student protest in Beijing, protesting against the Qing dynasty, where the official history of Zhou Yen flows as a student leader who was protesting in Tianjin, but that later historians see a lack of evidence that Zhou Yen was engaged in the event.
July, Zhou Yen flowed as editor of Tianjin Student Union Bulletin newspaper
August, Nankai High School moved up to a university, and Zhou Henlai was enrolled here. During the study, he co-founded the Awakening Society, a small group of students with a few dozen members. Yingchao), who became the future wife of Zhou Yen flows.
In January 1920, a group of Zhouen participated in a protest march against Japanese goods in Tianjin. This anti-Japanese protest took place in many cities across China, but with Japanese government pressure, police officers were forced to subdue the protests, and many students in Tianjin were arrested, including Zhou Hen Lai. also, which he convicted of guilty and jailed for two months.
After its release, the Awakening Society convened a meeting with other activists in Beijing and the Reform Federation was established. The newly formed group was supported by the Soviet Union through Grigori Voitinsky, an official in Ko. Mintern (Comintern)
In November, Zhou Yu decided to travel to France to study. During his imprisonment, he was expelled from the university, but he still received financial support from Yan Xiu, and also earned money from being a special foreign correspondent for Yishi bao newspaper.
In Europe, Joo Hen Lai chose the Guava name “John Knight.”
In January 1921, Zhou En flowed into London to observe the social changes in England, which caused numerous protests by miners. During this time, Joo En-Lai wrote a paper sent back to Yishi bao.
After a month in Britain, he returned to Paris. Zhou Hen Lai joined the Parisian Communist Group of the Chinese, which consisted of several key members: Deng Xiaoping, Kai Hesen, Li Lisan, Chen Yi.
1922 March, came to Berlin (Berlin), Germany
June, went back to Paris, and soon after the Chinese Youth Communist Party was established. It is considered a branch of the Chinese Communist Party in Europe, and Zhou Hen Lai was named as one of the three executive committees of the ruling party.
The party later made Shaonian magazine (Youth) before changing its name to Chiguang (Red Light), where Zhou Yun was editor. He hired Deng Xiaoping, who was only 17 years old, to help in print.
1923 June, at the 3rd Chinese Communist Party meeting, the meeting adopted a resolution of the Comintern Organization's proposal to cooperate with the Kuomintang Party led by Dr. Gogh Mintang. Sun Yat-Sen (Sun Yat-Sen), whose cooperation was for Communist Party members to be members of the Gogmin Tang Party, but still the Communist Party. Because of this, Zhou Hen Lai applied to become a member of the Gogh Mintang Party.
Zhou Hen Lai played a key role in setting up the Gogh Mintang party branch in Europe.
July 1924, returning to China
September, after returning to China, he took office at the political department of the Whampoa Military Academy. He took office for a few months, he was moved to the position of director of the political department.
At the same time, Zhou Hen Lai was also dressed as secretary general of the Communist Party, the Guandong Provincial Committee, which, thanks to Zhou Yu's position in the Nipao Institute, allowed him to draw several Communist Party members inside the institution.
January 1925, a nationalist faction led by Gogh Min Tang and Dr. Sun Yad Sen has launched a military operation to expel Chen Jiongming's side from Guangzhou, which Zhou Enflow also participated in the operation.
March 12, Dr. Sun Yadsen died of cancer, which led Jiangkai-check to become the leader of the nationalist faction and the supervisor of the Nippao Institute.
August 8, Zhou Hen Lai marries Deng Yingchau
In 1926, March 20, (Zhongshan incident), the communists moved the ship Zhongshan, the best ship of the Nipao military academy, without notifying Jiangkai Chek, causing Jiang Kai-Chek to suspect that the communist would overthrow him, and ordered the expulsion of communist support members from the Nipao Institute. Join the Jo-en flow.
In July, (Northern Expedition) Gogh Mintang started a major military operation to gather the divided Chinese land by lifting troops to conquer the northern territories. One of the main goals of this military operation to the north was Nanking, which was under the control of Sun Chuanfang. ). The operations of the Gogh Mintang and the early nationalist groups were consolidated by Communist China, under Soviet guidance, but there was a rivalry between the two parties.
1927 March 21, the communists were able to capture the city of Shanghai. Zhou Enlai was engaged in inciting more than six hundred thousand workers to rise up to riot and seize government offices. Contribution in the city
On April 12, (Shanghai massacre) Jiang Kai-shek and Gogh Min Tang broke down with the Chinese Communist Party by initiating a communist purge from Changhai, which killed nearly ten thousand communists. Zhou Hen Lai was almost killed in this incident, with him being tricked into a dinner party organized by Si Lie, the leader of the The six of Goh Mintang Zhou Enlai was captured, but he was soon released by the force of Bai Chongxi.
After his release, Zhou Hen Lai quickly fled from the mechanhai and headed to Wuhan to attend the fifth Communist Party General Conference held between April 27 and May 9, where at this meeting, Zhou Hen Nai was elected to the Communist Party Central Committee.
August 1, (Nanchang uprising) Zhou Enlai and He Long led the communists to rise up against Gogmin in Nanchang to try to hold the city. This was the first time the Chinese Communist Party and Gogmintang seized arms against each other after the Nanking incident.
Rising up against Gogminzang and the nationalist faction of the Chinese Communist Party in Nanchang on August 1 is considered the day of the establishment of the People's Liberation Army.
During this battle in Nanchang, Zhou Hen Li fell ill with malaria, and he was secretly transported to Hong Kong for treatment.
This Nanangyang event ended with Chinese Communist Party parties retreating to a foothold in Guangdong and using Guangzhou, Guangdong's capital, to propagate communism among farmers and workers.
At the end of the year, the Communist Party set up a special intelligence and operation agency called Zhongyang Teke (中), which Zhou Yu was commanding.
In 1928 June, (6th CCP's National Party Congress) Zhou Yen traveled to the Chinese Communist Party General Conference held in Moscow, where Xiang Zhongfa was elected as the party secretary general, but soon showed that he was unfit for the position, Zhou Yun became the unofficial leader of the party. At the meeting, Zhou Enflow expressed that China is not ready for the communist revolution at this time, and the party needs to campaign for support from the countryside.
1929 Zhowen flows back into a secret movement in Changhai
In 1931, Zhou Henlai and his wife moved to Jiangxi at the end of the year. In Jiangxi, this was called Jianxi-Fujian Soviet, a base of the Communist Party, established by Mao Zedong and Zhu De.
In 1933, the Soviets sent Otto Braun as a new adviser to the Chinese Communist Party. At this time, Zhou Yen was reforming the People's Liberation Army to a higher standard, and was able to resist attacks from the Gogh Mintang.
1934 October 16, (Long March) The Communist Party decided to leave Jiangxi because it was besieged from Gogmin Tang.
In October 1935, after travelling more than 9000 kilometers, the Chinese Communist Party set up a new base in Yan'an in Shaanxi Province, where they lost over half a hundred thousand manpower from in-way battles and natural obstacles. The events on the way in the Long March resulted in the arrival of Chanxi, Mao Zetung was supported. to become Communist Party leader instead of Zhou Yen flowing.
1936 August, the 7th Comintern Organization meeting, called on the Chinese Communist Party to go back to cooperation with Gogmin Tang in order to defy Japan, which Zhou Hen Lai followed its policy. He negotiated with Zhang Xueliang, a commander of the northern Goh Min Tang Army, Zhang Shu Liang. He was easily persuaded by Zhou Yen to join forces to attack Japan and retake Manchuria. They also hoped to end the war between the Chinese people and promote the slogan “Chinese must not flight Chinese”.
December 12-26, (Xi'an incident) In December, Jiang Kaisek came to Xi'an because he began to suspect Zhang Shu Liang's posture and in order to prepare the Gogh Mintang army to attack Japan in Manchuria, but later Zhang Shu Liang's soldiers broke into Jiangkai-shek's residence and captured him.
On December 24, Zhou Hen Lai represented the Chinese Communist Party in a dialogue with Jiangkai-shek, where both sides agreed to end the war between each other and cooperate against Japan.
On December 25, Jiangkai Chek was released and returned to Nanking. Zhang Shuliang traveled to Nanking with him, but when he reached Nanking, Jangsu Liang was betrayed by Jiangkai and taken.
While Zhou Hen, who was in Xian, was seen by Zhang Shu Liang's soldiers as betrayed and tricked Jang Shu Liang to Nanking as well. But Zhou Yu Yu used patience to talk until the soldiers of Zhang Shu Liang were calm.
The early 1937 Zhou Eng flowed, tried to negotiate for Gogh Min Tang to release Zhang Shu Liang, but did not succeed.
July 7, (Marco Polo Bridge Incident), the nationalist side clashed with Japan to cause the 2nd Sino-Japanese War.
December 13, Nanking, the capital of Gogmin Tong, was hit by Japan.
This year, Zhou Henlai adopted Sun Weishu (, Sun Weishi), a 16-year-old girl and his brother Sun Yang. Their father was killed by Gogh Mintai soldiers.
1938 24 March-7 April, (Battle of Taierzhuang)
1 Prusjikai, Zhou Hen Lai. Established Xinhua News Agency (新, Xinhua Daily) in Wuhan
November 13, (Fire fo Changsha) Zhouen Lai almost died in a fire in Changsha. After the city was besieged by Japan, and Jiangkai-check feared it would not be possible to keep the city.
This year, Zhou Henlai also took his three-year-old Li Peng (, Li Peng) to care after his father was killed by Gogh Min Tang, who later became the prime minister of China.
In 1939, Zhou Hen Lai suffered an accident falling off a horse, causing his right arm to break, so he was transported to Moscow for medical treatment. His daughter Ti Sun Wue was accompanied by his daughter, and after Jong-en flown back to China, Chun Wue Xi remained in Moscow to study acting.
1941 January 7, (Anhui Incident) Incident at Anhui, discord communists and Gogh Mintang parties once again.
1942, he was in Chongqing to negotiate for Gogh Mintong to release captured members of the Communist Party.
Zhou Yu's father died.
At this time, he had a conflict with Mao Zedung, because Mao Zedung tried to establish his self-religion through the concept of “Moaism” among Communist Party members. But Zhou Erin had disagreed at first. You're on the same side as Mao Zedung.
1944, The Dixie mission, the United States sent a number of soldiers to observe the Gogh Mintang army to prepare for the invasion of Japan.
1945 September 2, Japan surrendered in World War II
In October, Jiangkai-shek invited Mao Zedung and Zhou Yi to a meeting in Chongqing for peace talks with America, but the talks failed.
December, there's another three-party meeting, where the president's Truman (Henry S. Truman, the U.S., sent Gen. George Marshall (Gen. George C. Marshall) came as an intermediary to which the Communist Party and Gogh Mintang Party agreed to a ceasefire between each other.
1946, a ceasefire between the Communists and Gomin set to take effect because of violent clashes in Manchuria.
In May, Zhowen flows out of Chongqing to Nanking, returning to the capital of Gogmin Tang.
November, the vocal Communist Party flocked back to Yangan
March 1947, Gomin Tang's forces invaded Yan, while communists used guerrilla warfare to set up.
January 1949, the Communist Party managed to hold Beijing and Tianjin, leaving most of China's northern territories in communist control.
January 21, Jiang Kai-shek resigned as president of the nationalist faction, and Gen.Li Zongren took the post instead, where he opened several talks with communist parties, but the talks did not cease because Jiang Kai-chek, who remained in power behind, did not accept the deal.
April 21, Mao Zedung declared the People's Liberation Army to wage war across the country.
April 23, the Communist Party successfully seized Nanjing and Lee Song Ren granted asylum to the U.S.
On October 1, Mao Zedung announced the establishment of the People's Republic of China, where Zhou Hen Lai was the first prime minister of China. He also held the position of foreign minister along with Zhou Hen Lai in the position of the State Department. Overseas until 1958 and was in prime minister until his death. In 1976,
In December, Chengdu, which was the last stronghold of Gogmin Tang, was seized by the Communist Party, and Jiangkai-chek fled to Taiwan.
In 1950, China annexed Tibet into a part of its territory, while Zhou Hen Lai achieved diplomatic success by visiting India and negotiating with India's first president Jawaharlal Nehru after independence, acknowledging that Tibet belongs to China.
June, (Korean war), the Korean War, in which Zhou Yun played a role in negotiating the two sides to fire each other a year later.
1953 March 5, Stalin died, and Zhou Yen, representing China, went on to participate in the ceremonial state.
1954 attended the Geneva Conference 1954, a negotiation to find an end to the Vietnam War, which fought for independence from France. This meeting led to the division of Vietnam into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
1955 attended the Bandung Conference (Bandung Conference 1955)
In 1966, President Mao began the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) to improve his own image and intensify his power. President Mao relied on propaganda for young people in the name of Red Guards to destroy a culture that is seen to be outdated. Stay quiet for safety.
1972 21-28 February, President Richard Nixon visits China
1973 was elected vice president of the Communist Party, number one, posing Zhou Hen Lai as the successor from Chairman Mao.
1976 January 8, died of cancer. At the time of age 77
April, (Tiananmen Incident) The death of Zhou Hen Lai contributed to a protest event at Tiananmen Square.