Vladimir Lenin (Владимир Ильим Ленин)
Lenin. Born April 22, 1870 (April 10, O.S.) In Simberg, Russia (Simbirsk, Russia)
His father was named Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, 1863-1886), who taught physics and mathematics at Kazan Imperial University.
Lenin's mother, Maria Alexandrovna Blank, 1835-1916). Her ancestors were Jews who moved from Germany in the days of Catherine the Great (Catherine the Great) and changed to Orthodox.
Ilya and Maria married in 1863. Shortly after his father and mother got married, Ilya got a new job in Nizhny Novgorod, serving as a trustee of several elementary schools in Simberg, where Ilya was devoted to work, and later oversaw more than four hundred schools in the
Lenin is the third child of eight brothers. Anna (1864 — 1935) Alexander (1866 — 1887) Olga (1868 — 1869) Lenin (1870 — 1924) Olga (1871 — 1891) Nikolai (1873 — 1873) Dmitry (1874 — 1943) Maria (1878 — 1937)
As a child, Lenin was called Volodya, meaning little Saint Vladimir. While his father was a good orthodoxy, Lenin's mother, despite being a Lutheran in the world, was a disregard for religion, which influenced her children's thoughts so much.
In 1879, Lenin enrolled at Simbirsk gymnasium, where the school's director at that time was Fyodor Mikhailovich Kerensky, the father of Alexander Kerensky, the prime minister in a later transitional government.
In 1886, when Lenin was 15, his father died of a brain haemorrhage, which, after his father died, Lenin became aggressive and anti-God.
While this time, eldest brother Alexander was studying at St. Petersburg University (St. Petersburg University (Petersburg University), and he also moved against the system of patriarchy and Tsar Alexander III. Alexander was involved with extremists who wanted to take down the Sar. And he broke their plan, allowing Alexander to be arrested and sentenced to death by hanging in May.
In 1887, Lenin graduated from Jimnesia with a gold medal score, and he enrolled at Kazan University in law. During his studies, he became a member of the Semyas Group (Землячество, Zemlyachestvo), like an association of students who had to study far from home, Lenin was chosen as head of the semya group. Chestvo, which also has a movement against the government and the tsar, whose integration into the university at the time was also considered illegal, allowing the police to arrest Lenin as a vocal leader, until Lenin was eventually expelled from the university.
May 8 (May 20) Dec N.S.) Lenin's brother Alexander was executed by hanging from an attempt to lop down Chomsar.
After leaving university, Lenin read what Is to Be Done, a novel by Nikolay Chernyshevsky, a writer who supported the revolution.
Later, Lenin was back in Kazan and joined a group of revolutionaries led by Nikolai Fedoseev, which allowed Lenin to read Karl Marx's The Capital for the first time.
While Lenin's mother was concerned that he would become an extremist, she bought a plot in the village of Alegajevka in Samara (Alakaevka vlage, Samara), wanting Lenin to be a farmer, but Lenin sold it.
In 1889, Lenin's family moved to Samara, where Lenin spent time translating Mark's The Communist Manifasto and Friedrich Engels into Russian. He also spent his time studying the green works of Georgi Plekhanov, a Russian Marxist writer.
In 1890, Maria, Lenin's mother, lobbying until Lenin was allowed to take the exam at St. Petersburg University, where Lenin could pass the test to finish with honors, number one.
After earning a law degree, Lenin worked as an assistant at a court in Samara for years, but still didn't abandon the idea of radical politics; he continued to meet with Sir Nicheski's group to find ways to adopt the Marxist system in Russia.
In 1893, Lenin moved to St. Petersburg, working as an assistant lawyer for Mikhail F. Wolkenstein), in politics, he became a top official among Marxists, who called himself social-Democrats.
In 1894, Lenin became head of the Leftist Workers. At this time, Lenin was known to Nadezhda Krupskaya, an elementary school teacher, who was a Marxist and later became Lenin's official wife.
wrote the article Friends of the People and How They Fight the Social-Democrats, which attacked the Narodnik, a socialist group. However, there are different ideas about revolutionary emigration. As Lenin believes, according to Pelkanov's idea, the revolution to socialism relies on urban labor (proletariat).
Lenin has been in contact with the Emancipation of Labour (свобождение Труда), the first Marxist group of Russia. It has a constant base in Switzerland.
Enrolled at Staatsbibliothek for six weeks.
In 1896, he traveled back to Russia to smuggle the publication of revolutionary articles. He had to travel in Russia to expose leftist articles before Lenin was arrested along with 40 other activists in St. Petersburg on charges of incitement.
In 1897, he was sentenced to exile to Siberia for three years. Prior to Lenin, he had a chance to meet with a group of Social-Democrats in St.
Lenin's trip to Siberia was joined by his mother and sister on the journey. He was sent to Shushenskoye, Krasnoyarsk Krai, where he lived reasonably free while here, was able to go out and go out of town or meet revolutionaries together, with staff watching periodically.
In 1898, Nadezda, who had been arrested since 1896, was also sentenced to exile. At first she was sentenced to go to Ufa, but she lobbying to ask authorities to send her to Schusenkoye so she could meet Lenin.
July 10, Lenin and Nadezda got married inside the church.
During their stay in the city, Lenin and Nadezda continued to translate leftist writings in German into Russian.
1898 1 March, the Emancipation of Labour group switched to the RSDLP (Russia Social Democratic Labour Party), which considered today the first major meeting of the RSDLP party, which had nine participants.
In 1899, Lenin wrote “The Development of Capitalism in Russia,” which was published using the pen name Vladimir Ilin, but that the book didn't get much attention at the time.
In 1900, Lenin escaped from Schuchenskoye by staying in Pskov and making out the Iskra (Spark) newspaper, which became the main media of the RSDLP party.
July, fled Russia and joined the Marxists in Switzerland.
1901 began using a new pseudonym, Lenin, presumably from the name Lena River in Siberia.
1902 wrote the article “What Is To Be Done?” In which Lenin highlighted the necessity of setting up a political party, which Lenin called the Vanguard party, to be a proletariat leader in the revolution.
Shortly later, Nadezda went along with Lenin in Munich, Germany.
This year, the Narodnik Group founded the SR (Socialist Revolutionary Party).
April, Lenin moved to London and got to know Trotsky (Leon Trotsky)
When coming to London Lenin, sick with erysipelas disease (erysipelas).
1903 July, the RSDLP party held its second major meeting in London, which allowed the RSDLP party to split into two parties: the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks supported Lenin, who saw that party leaders should have total power to control the party, while Julius Martov (Julius Martov). Which wants to see party members be free to express their opinions; the group, which supports Martov's idea, is called Menshevik.
With Lenin's fury towards Menshevic for his disobedient disobedience, Lenin later on resigned from the newspaper's editor Iskra.
In May, Lenin wrote an article “One Step Forward, Two Step Back” to attack the Menchevic faction.
Shortly after that, stress caused Lenin to fall ill, so he had to travel on a Swiss holiday.
December, the Bolsheviks control all the voices in the Central Committee of the RSDLP party and have made the newspaper Vpered (Forward).
In 1904, the Russo- Japanese War, 1904-1905. Japan began to attack Russian naval bases in Port Arthur, which Russia leased from China because it saw Russia as an obstacle to expanding Japanese territory into Korea and Manchuria.
In St. Petersburg, partly as a result of the war with Japan, the Russian economy has worsened. Protests led by Pastor Georgy Gapon called for improvements in labor welfare and reform of the country's administration, and the request for a constitution and parliament.
The Lenin side encouraged the Bolsheviks to escalate the situation, stirring up the violence.
Bloody Sunday event ends in bloodshed
In April, the RSDLP party held its third major meeting in London. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks had a hard standoff with the Bolsheviks focused on violence, but Menchevk wanted a peaceful and gradual revolution, which at the Lenin meeting presented ideas in the article “Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution” published in In August, Lenin saw that revolutionaries led by farmers and laborers should use violence, take up arms, use the slogan “Death or Freedom” to overthrow the King system, and create a transitional government, which is a temporary dictator of farmers and workers.
Tsar Nicholas II, October Manifeto, Tsar Nicholas II, issued a statement expressing the will to establish a constitution in the country, responding to claims at a bloody Sunday event.
Lenin soon returned to Russia and became editor-in-chief of Novayha Zhinzn (New Live), a book of extremists, run by Maria Andreyeva.
In the meantime, Lenin has accelerated the RSDLP party to expand its membership numbers. Lenin has urged more chaos, terrorism, because it is essential for the revolution and to raise funds for the party's activities.
So many members of the RSDLP are criminals, they rob government offices, railways, banks.
June, Leonid Krasin, Joseph Stalin, a member of the Bolshevik RSDLP, created a major hero by robbing the government's central bank in Tiflis, Georgia (Tiflis, Georgia).
1906 April, the 4th RSDLP Party Conference was held clear in Stockholm.
May 6, Tsar Nicholas II bestowed the Constitution. The first edition of the country officially
1907 May, 5th RSDLP Party Conference in London
Lenin fled Russia to Finland before continuing to Switzerland after the tsar ordered secret police to sweep the revolutionaries.
1908 May, Lenin came to London for a while and spent time writing “Materialism and Empirio-Criticism”.
December, Alexander Bogdanov and a vocal Bolsheviks settled on the move, the RSDLP party moved its headquarters to Paris, with Lenin dissenting.
August 1910, Lenin attended the 8th RSDLP Party and Second International conference in Copenhagen, where here Lenin got to know Inessa Armand, who became another Lenin lover.
After the end of the meeting, Lenin brought his mother, wife and Arman to move to France.
1912 moved to Grago, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (Krakow, Galicia and Lodomeria Kingdom).
January 1913, Stalin traveled to meet Lenin in Galicia.
In 1914, World War 1, Russia and Austria-Hungary fought a war. Lenin, a Russian citizen, was held in prison for a while, before being released when Lenin could prove he was against the Russian tsar.
The latter was released. Lenin and his wife went to Switzerland.
In July 1916, Lenin's mother died in Petrograd, while Lenin was unable to travel to her funeral.
February 1917, February (February Revolution) took place in the February revolution in Russia, ending the King system in Russia, allowing the Russian administration to divide into two parties: the Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet division, which usurped power.
The Provisional Government, led by Georgy Lvov, served as head of government between March and July, and Alexander Kerensky headed the government during July to September.
Parts of Soviet Petrograd were mostly laborers in Petrograd, supporting the RSDLP party led by Nikolay Chkheidze, Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev (Grigory Zinoviev).
April, Lenin returned to Russia by a special train to Finland Station in Petrograd.
April 17, Lenin published “April Theses,” calling for joint supporters to topple the Provisional Government.
July 16-20, July (July Days) was a revolutionary attempt to bring down the Bolshevik's provisional government, supported by navy and labor in Petrograd, but failed. At the time of the Lenin incident, and the Bolsheviks hid in a safe house, where Lenin was later issued, fled to Finland.
August, General Lavr Kornilov tried to revolutionize Kerensky's transitional government but failed. But after this, Kerensky turned to dialogue with the Bolsheviks for support, where Kerenski agreed to establish the Red Guards in Petrograd, which allowed the Bolsheviks to strengthen again. One, in which Trotsky was soon elected as the leader of Soviet Petrograd.
September, Lenin published his work “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism”.
October 10, Lenin, who was back in Petrograd after the situation was safe for him and held a meeting of the Bolshevik Central Committee, and Lenin offered the party a vocal grip on arms to bring down the transitional government, which the majority supports.
October 24, the Bolshevik Revolutionary Planning Conference was held for the last time at the Smolny Institute.
October 25, the October Revolution began. The Bolsheviks entered the Winter Palace, a government office, seized train stations and communication stations.
26 October, Decree on Land was the first law which declared the property of nobles and religions to be owned by the government to be allocated to farmers.
27 October, Lenin announced the establishment of a new government, called the Council of People's Commissars, Совет Народных Комиссаров РСФСР СФСР (Sovnarkom)
November, Lenin announced the Declaration of the Rights of the People of Russia, which grants people who are not of Russian descent but live in Russian territory, have the right to set their own country. As a result, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Estania, TranCaucasus all declare independence. It argued Lenin's true intent on whether it only wanted to weaken the forces of its opponents, because the Soviets finally gathered those lands back.
5 December, the Cheka Special Police Service was set up to suppress anti-revolutionaries across Russia.
27 December, the Volunteer Army, an anti-Bolshevik force led by General Mikhail Alekseyev and General Lavr Kornilove, was officially announced, becoming the main forces fighting the Bolsheviks in Russia's civil war (Civil War, 1917-1922).
In 1918, January 14, Lenin was steered during his ride in Petrograd, but Swiss communist Fritz Platten, who was sitting in the car, used his bundles until he was injured; Lenin himself was wounded by bullets, which some of Lenin's body were not operated on to lead. forth
March 3, Russia signed the Brest-Litovsk Treaty to withdraw from the World War.
Russia lost its Baltic territory to Germany and left Ukraine independent, and lost the Kars Oblast, a state in the Caucasus, to Ottoman. In total, Russia lost over 23% of its territory from the agreement. Protests were made until the Germans lost the war and Emperor Wilhelm II was removed, Russia declared the Brest-Litov Treaty void.
6 March, the Bolsheviks held the 7th RSLDP party meeting, this time the party was officially renamed to the Communist Party.
In March, Leninae moved the administration hub from Petrograd to the Kremlin, Moscow, for security, for lest the Germans invade Russia.
The Czechoslovak Legion is a militia in the 1st World War, which is in the Allied Entente Powers, alongside Imperial Russia, and in battle with Germany, Poland, west of Ukraine, Poland and Belarus, but the Bolsheviks made the Brest-Litovsk treaty with the Central Pao Group. Ver (Central Powers German, Austrian and Ottoman) made Czechoslovak forces trapped inside Russian territory unable to withdraw troops in the west, and planned to withdraw troops in the Far East at Vladivostok, on the Transiberian route.
But in May, the Czechoslovak forces clashed with the Bolsheviks, causing the Allied Powers, who feared German and Central Power could take over Russia, sent troops into Russia. The U.S., Japan sent troops to Vladivostek and Britain sent troops to Murmansk. Arkangelsk (Arkhangelsk)
July 6- 7, (Left SR revolt) Members of the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party tried to revolutionize the Bolshevik government in Moscow.
July, the first constitution of the Russian Socialist Federation (Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic) promulgated
July 16, the execution of Tsar Nicholas, Sardina Alexandra, 5 His Royal Highnesses and four other followers, including 11 in Yekaterinburg, in order to prevent the White Army or the Bolsheviks from helping them.
August 30, Lenin was assassinated again by Fanny Kaplan during Lenin's visit to one of the factories, with Lenin being hit by three bullets and seriously wounded; Fanny was caught and executed a time later.
Shortly after Lenin sustained the injury, Lenin began the Red Torror policy, which highlighted the use of intense repression against those who opposed the Bolsheviks.
On September 3, the Iswesteria newspaper published its Red Terror policy in an article “Appeal to the Wroking Class,” which declares violence against all forms of anti-revolutionaries, and those arrested if alive will be sent to a gulug camp.
September 5th, Sofnakrom officially declared the Red Terror policy. During the period of the Russian Civil War 1917-1922, it was not possible to determine the number of victims of Lenin's Red Terror policy, but it was estimated that it was two hundred thousand to a million people.
In the first year of Lenin's administration, Lenin's government chose to take over large government ventures, including banks, transport, railways, mines and large land, but still allow small businesses to be private.
This year, many Russian cities faced severe food shortages. Lenin blamed it for the Kulaks, or wealthy peasants, with a lot of land, hoarding seeds for speculation, so Lenin ordered the suppression and reimbursement of assets and land, as well as the execution of these kulaks in public places to not be the same. Lenin's policy has been a hot month around, until a chaotic society and a civil war could not solve food shortages but intensify them. But Lenin emphasizes that violence and crime are needed in transitional societies in order for the revolution to succeed.
In 1919, Likbez Campaign Lenin started a project to stimulate the literacy rate of the people from 1919-1923, seeing that if the people had knowledge, they would cultivate the ideology of the party, and would create an ideal socialism. The Ministry of Education (Narkompros) set up a Cheka Likbez unit to fight teachers who would be sent to teach books around. In the country, classrooms were set up in each village, but in fact, they became a tool for propaganda for the party, and the villagers only had to study the books sent by the Communist Party, so they were referred to as Red Reader.
February 14, (Polish-Soviet War, 191919-1920) Polish-Soviet War
March 2, forming a communist Internaitional, Comintern to support communist revolutions across Europe, which Lenin views as inevitable.
1920 wrote “Left-Wing” Communism” An Infantile Disorder
September, Inessa Armand died from a cholera epidemic in which her body was buried next to the Kremlin wall.
In 1921 (Russian famine, 1921-1922), citizens also faced a severe famine, which was the most severe in history. More than five million people died from hunger because of Bolshevik's abusive economic policies, which led farmers in many areas to protest against the government.
February, Lenin announced the new NEP (New Economic Policy), a retreat from the socialist economy in 1918-1921 to capitalist and market economies, uniting the grain from peasants.
In March, (Kronstadt rebellion) naval forces at the port of Kronstad in the Gulf of Finland. Nearly two thousand soldiers, together with tens of thousands of people, have rebelled against the Bolshevik government, with demonstrators demanding freedom and fundamental rights of workers and farmers.
August, the Tambov Rebellion,1920-1921, was a huge protest of farmers, called treason. To resist the state's attempts to forcibly remove seeds and food, farmers gathered together for a guerrilla war against the Red Army and Chekah, which left tens of thousands of people killed.
In the second half of this year, Lenin started a severe illness; he had insomnia, hearing impairments and headaches, causing him to retreat into Moscow's gorki mansion, where his mother and wife Nanezda looked after.
In April 1922, Lenin underwent a cut to remove the bullet in his body. This was due to be assassinated since 1918 from the body, which doctors determined was likely the cause of Lenin's illness.
May, suffered a stroke in the brain, which caused Lenin to lose his ability to speak and his right body paralyzed for several months before the symptoms improved.
December, there was another stroke in the brain.
The first week of the year, Lenin wanted to change the structure of the Soviet administration because he saw the conflict between Trotsky and Stalin. Lenin seemed to want Stalin to remove Stalin from the post of Secretary-General of the Communist Party. The 12th party meeting was held in April, but Lenin suffered a stroke again in March. Before the meeting, Nadezda kept his will secret because he thought Lenin would recover.
1924 January 21, Lenin died
After Lenin died, Nadezda gave Lenin's will to the central committee of the party, but the will was censored and published in limited limits, lest it damage the party as a whole. Lenin's will could not stop Stalin becoming the new leader of the Soviet Union.
The Development of Capitalism in Russia, 1899What Is To Be Done?, 1902One Step Forward, Two Step Back, 1903Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1917The State and Revolution, 1917 “Left-Wing” Communism” An Infantile Disorde, 1920